With many questions from readers regarding periodization, we will start a sequence of publications related to the topic. The Special will have a weekly publication by the 6 week period. The suggestions of ACSM will be used (2009).
The progression Principle is a big factor important to the timeline, and three variables are crucial in this process: overload, specificity and variation (KRAEMER and RATAMESS, 2004). There are countless variations that can be prepared using these variables, and the results may be the most diverse, according to the purpose. The individual genetic characteristics and may influence the results (ACSM, 2002).
The progression of overload is characterized by increased stress suffered by the active muscle groups in motion. Beginners on a training program, due to neural adaptations, has marked an increase of overhead in the first weeks. The increase of the overhead can be handled in several ways:
Progressive increase in the absolute load, increased training volume, bringing the number of repetitions performed in each series, with volume up by adding one or more exercises, increase the number of repetitions of the session, reducing the rest period between sets, or even combining more than one said member.
The specificity is partly because of all the adaptations are specific according to the stimulus applied. The specific physiological adaptations of weight training are determined by several factors:
Muscle involved (Dudley et al., 1991);
Moving speed (Coburn et al., 2006);
Range of motion (Knapik et al., 1983);
Trained muscle groups (Kraemer et al., 2004);
Involved power system (Tesch et al., 1989);
Intensity and training volume (Rhea et al., 2003).
Thus, we must use one or more of these factors to achieve the objectives of the training program.
The variation (or accruals) is to change one or more elements of the training program over a certain time to allow the training program follow challenging and effective. As mentioned above, there are various ways to manipulate the variables training with weights, however, it is the most studied volume and intensity (ACSM, 2009).
In addition to being effective in specific sports, the periodization of weight training proves more effective compared to no training periodization for leisure (Dolezal and Potteiger, 1998) and rehabilitation (Fees et al., 1998).
We highlight below three methods highlighted by the ACSM (2009):
Classical periodization: If the first by the high volume and low intensity, and gradually replaced by low volume and high intensity, such a method is traditionally used to develop strength and power (FLECK, 1999).
Periodization Reverse: Does the opposite direction of the Classic model, where initially the intensity is high and the low volume and over time the roles are reversed. The model has been used for local muscle endurance purpose (Ebben et al., 2004).
Periodization Rolling: In this model the intensity and the alternate volume within a cycle aimed at achieving the development of various skills (strength, power, endurance) adapting the program to your goal.
All periodization variations mentioned above proved superior to non periodized programs, make your choice and good training.
Be sure to check the sequence of our special about periodization.