Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) was commonly occurring in already advanced age subjects, not being a concern for young people years ago. However, recently many cases have occurred in people under the age of 40, making the matter of great importance for the general population.
Stroke is one form of cardiovascular disease (CVD). An ischemic stroke is caused by the reduction of cerebral blood flow, while one or haemorrhagic stroke is caused by intracerebral hemorrhage. Both can cause the reduction of oxygen and nutrients can lead to death of cells located in the brain. Currently the Stroke is a leading cause of death in the world, among the top in the United States (ROGER et al., 2014).
The disease can cause cardiovascular disability, musculoskeletal, and neurological deficiencies when combined with a sedentary lifestyle, increasing fatigue, and severe reduction in physical fitness, compromising the health and quality of life (billinger et al., 2014). To get a sense of the scale of the problem in the United States, approximately 795,000 people suffer from stroke experience a year and an estimated 7 million Americans are survivors (ROGER et al., 2014).
Even for those who survive a stroke, naturally the attack leaves sequels, including: hemiparesis (weakness on one side), hemiplegia (paralysis of one side), spasticity, cognitive dysfunction, limited mobility, reduced ability to perform life activities daily (AVD) (billinger et al., 2014).
Several researchers point out that physical exercise, either aerobic (street racing, for example) or anaerobic (Weight training, for example), are of utmost importance for the prevention of stroke, thereby reducing the risk (RIMMER et al. 2009; Lee et al, 2010;. FLANJBIER et al, 2012;.. IVEY et al, 2014).
Sudden numbness or weakness of the arms, legs on one side, sudden severe headache, sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding words, sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of coordination or balance, loss of balance and unexplained falls (NINDS, 2014)
With regard to risk factors for the occurrence of stroke, the American Stroke Association (2014), mentions:
• Age risk doubles for each decade for the age group 55 years and older
• Family history of stroke and / or CVD, stroke risk may be higher in people whose parents, grandparents, or siblings had a stroke
• African descent Americans have a higher risk of death stroke than Caucasians
• By gender, women have more strokes than men
• Previous risk of stroke stroke-accident is greater in people with a history of stroke.
Other complementary factors of lifestyle become risk, including:
• Hypertension (high blood pressure 140/90 mm / Hg or 130/80 mm / Hg with CKD) is a major cause of stroke
• High cholesterol
• Atrial fibrillation (irregular rapid pace of the upper chambers of the heart) doubles the risk of stroke
• Other heart diseases such as heart
• Failure and dilated cardiomyopathy, peripheral artery disease and carotid artery disease
• Sickle cell disease
• Physical inactivity Obesity
• Diet (high saturated fat and low fruit and vegetables)
• Physical Aspects and Cognition
The survivors of a stroke suffer from a huge possibility of sequels, where following your life normally becomes a huge challenge. Below is the list of difficulties that patients affected by stroke may suffer after recovering the same.
• Hemiparesis-weakness (typically) on the opposite side of the body that was brain damage, which can cause a loss of balance and coordination and increased risk of falling, difficulty walking, difficulty / inability to grasp objects, decreased movement accuracy and muscle fatigue
• Hemiplegia-paralysis (typically) usually on the opposite side that occurred brain damage spasticity-hypertonic (involuntary contraction of the muscles) that impairs normal joint movement and brings reduced ability to perform daily activities and a sedentary lifestyle can increase risk of heart problems
• Excessive muscle fatigue in physical activity, which can prevent participation exercise
• Cognitive deficits / memory can limit retention instructions and safety precautions
• Aphasia (difficulty forming or understanding speech).
Because the consequences caused by stroke, these obstacles prevent many people are interested in joining a physical activity (billinger, 2014). However, it becomes very important to improve motor and cognitive capacities of the individual.
Benefits of exercise
For this population, many researchers emphasize the importance of exercise for recovery after a stroke. They mention that both aerobic training when the weight plays an essential character in the process, improving the recovery of muscle, cardiorespiratory capacity, functional capacity, and prevents various risks of a new attack (GLOBAS et al, 2012;.. IVEY et al, 2014; MACKO et al, 2014)..
As a suggestion for aerobic exercise, it is suggested to use bikes or walk with supervision, avoiding the treadmill first.
Other indications are with respect to quick changes of direction, be overseeing the overload all the time, constant monitoring of student and always prefer sitting exercises than standing (billinger et al., 2014).
Despite being a challenge for people who have suffered stroke, physical exercise is an essential tool for the recovery of the same, so you must have dedication and choose the activity that makes you well so you can achieve motor and cognitive improvement.