Over the years, especially after 50 years, we face the loss of muscle mass (known as sarcopenia), a fact that not only is something to worry aesthetically, but also the difficulties related to mobility are driven with this effect of time (SAVINAIEN et al., 2004; Fabre et al., 2007). Another issue that generates much concern with advancing age is the propensity to heart disease, which is increased by the reduction in heart function and elasticity of smooth muscle contained in the Heart (Tanaka et al., 2009).
However, these risk factors for individual older can be reversed by the change in your lifestyle, making use of exercise into their daily routines (OTSUKI et al., 2008).
Recently the training with vascular occlusion has been thought of as a way to achieve great results using low load, which would result in less harm to the practitioner within articulate, muscular and cardiovascular (ABE et al., 2010, FRY et al., 2010, YASUDA et al., 2014). Interestingly, it is also used aerobic training in training routines.
Training impact with Vascular Occlusion in hormonal factors related muscle hypertrophy
Protein synthesis is a crucial factor for muscle hypertrophy and is triggered by factors including the transcriptional regulation of mRNA by way of rapamycin (mTOR) (BAMMAN et al., 2001).
Yasuda et al. (2009) recently, found that protein synthesis and ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K-1) It is increased after a single training session with vascular occlusion. These actions can be explained by the regulation of genes associated with hypertrophy, as Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT) and mTOR.
Furthermore, an increase in the rate of angiogenesis has been described when the lactate levels are high, thus causing a greater hypertrophic stimuli (Hunt et al., 2008).
Training impact with Vascular Occlusion change in hemodynamic factors.
Studies report that exercises with the use of moderate to high loads, especially in isometric movements elevate systolic and diastolic blood pressure sharply (MacDougall et al, 1985;. ROWELL, 1993).
These results suggest a strong influence of overload on the hemodynamic functions and can be more aggressive strenuous exercise.
In contrast to the findings, Renzi et al. (2010) warns about the use of this method in people prone to heart disease because, despite the low overhead, elevates blood pressure in this population at greater levels than conventional training.
Moreover, the trend in individuals without heart disease, blood pressure values show similar to conventional training (Park et al., 2010), which suggests the security of the method of practicing this group.
Training impact with Vascular Occlusion in autonomic function
Weight training is efficient in the parasympathetic nervous activation practitioners with hypertension, or heart failure (Malfatto et al., 1998), however, there occur the same results if used the same overloads in healthy practitioners, suggesting that such similarity to a greater burden is required in this population (Heydari et al., 2013).
There is a report about the increased sympathetic nerve activity through the use of training with vascular occlusion (IIDA, 2007).
Training limitations with vascular occlusion and future projection
There is no standard regarding the amount of occlusion, duration of use, load to be used in this method. However, Takarada et al. (2000) suggests that 100mm / Hg is sufficient to increase the concentration of blood lactate and hypoxia stimulate the muscle work. Already Figueroa and Vicil (2011) did not find these results with 100mm / Hg.
Another issue raised is the cuff size to be used where results were found with cuff of 13.5 cm (Rossow et al., 2013) and 5 cm (EBA, 2010), leaving no doubt about that factor.
The method of vascular occlusion have positive reports in the literature regarding the maintenance of muscle mass and hypertrophy, however, has not confirmed the safety of the method due to oscillation in blood pressure, so care target, especially for people prone to heart disease . The lack of a standard is applied to other point to be taken into consideration prior to using the method.