Schizophrenia is a brain disease, the cause (s) unknown, with demonstrations and whose evolution is quite varied from person to person; It is characterized by an extensive disorganization of thought processes.
It is a complex clinical condition with signs and symptoms in the area of thought, perception and emotions, and can cause occupational injury in the life of interpersonal and family relationships. (Louzã NETO, 1996).
The disease has early symptoms, which are those that occur months or years before a first outbreak. They are not specific to the disease which hinders early diagnosis of the disorder (MELO, 2009).
There are two types of symptoms, negative and positive. The positives are those who should not be seen by the patient originated from a distortion of the normal functioning of psychic functions, such as hallucinations. Therefore, positive symptoms are not good signs. (Holmes, 1997).
Hallucinations can occur in various ways, and may be hearing, imagining voices giving you orders like feel, visual (Louzã NETO, 1996).
Negative symptoms aims to say objectively that the condition of the patient, are derived from the reduction or loss of mental functions and including decreased affectivity and motivation, poverty of speech and social withdrawal. (Louzã NETO, 1996).
The lack of motivation and apathy is a very common condition in patients after the crisis with positive symptoms cease. The patient shows no interest in any social activity, is seen by most families as sign of laziness or unwillingness; however, this is a symptom of schizophrenia. Also neglects hygiene and personal appearance. (ASSIS; VILLARES; BRESSAN, 2007).
According to Holmes (1997) all around the patient with schizophrenia
They need time and information to get used, losing the prejudice and learn to live with all the symptoms. This approach has schizophrenia will gradually revert to benefits for themselves, alleviating suffering and impact, and improving their quality of life.
Quality of life (QOL) can be defined as the subjective form of each individual to assess their well-being physical, emotional, social and functional. Includes the ability to achieve psychological satisfaction, behavioral, physical and social. And
further relates to the cost and severity of the disease, and thus economic interference. (CAMARGOS et al., 2004).
One of the determining factors to provide a better quality of life is the practice of regular physical activity due to physical and cognitive benefits provided by it.
According Pitanga (2002), these days, the activity has any body movement as a concept originated by skeletal muscles that leads to energy expenditure. Such activities are important biopsychosocial, cultural and behavioral. They are characterized as physical activity games, fights, dances, sports, exercise, work activities and movements.
The adapted physical activity is a diversified program of developmental activities, games, sports, rhythmic and expressive activities whose organization is based on interests, capabilities and limitations of individuals with some limitation.
According Benedetti et al. (2006) the practice of physical activities or else exercise enables you to control the levels of stress and diseases such as obesity, coronary heart disease and diabetes, in addition to positively affect the individual’s functional fitness, which is defined as the ability to play daily life safely and effectively.
The practice of regular exercise for patients with schizophrenia shown important to improve their physical function and quality of life. Although few studies mention the emotional effects of it, it is suggested that there is a positive effect in reducing stress and improved cognitive function, which directly influence the emotional factor.