According Varella (2011), Bursitis is inflammation of a bursa, which is a small bag containing liquid which surrounds the joint and acts as a buffer between bones, tendons and muscle tissues. Bursitis occurs mainly on the shoulders, elbows and knees.
To Stedman (1996) the bursae are lined by synovial bags with fluid inside, responsible for decreasing the friction between tendons and muscles over bony prominences
The most common symptoms of bursitis are:
* Edema (swelling);
* Motion restriction.
Among the causes of bursitis include:
* Injuries effort;
* Excessive use of joints;
* Repetitive movements;
* Arthritis (joint inflammation);
Gout (uric acid crystals deposit in the joints).
The treatment should be performed under medical supervision, and includes the use of anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, ice applications and reduction of motion in the affected area. Physical therapy can help, since supervised by professionals. More severe cases may require surgical intervention.
Kuntzler (2011) describes the types of bursitis, check below:
Acute bursitis subdeltoid
Acute bursitis subdeltoid is the most frequent cause of limited joint mobility contravening the capsular proportions. This disease has a sudden onset, reaching its peak in just three days. The patient referred progressive intensity of pain, initially localized in the shoulder and then projecting to the hilt. The examination revealed marked limitation of mobility. This condition differs from the capsular pattern by the prevailing limitation of abduction, while external rotation is revealed almost normal.
The pains are usually very intense during the first ten days; spontaneous healing takes about six weeks. It is entirely possible that a relapse occurs within the next five years, is in the same shoulder, is on the opposite side. Calcification spinal above tendon is capable of causing acute bursitis, calcium salts when suddenly spread in light of subdeltoid bag.
Acute bursitis may also be the first manifestation of a rheumatic process.
Chronic bursitis subdeltoid
It may be primary or secondary, in analogy to what happens with disorders of the acromioclavicular joint. However, it should be noted that chronic bursitis does not present the continuation or sequel of late acted bursitis. The latter is an entirely separate disease.
Primary chronic bursitis
The “primary” Chronic bursitis can occur at any age period between 15 and 65 years. It seems to be secondary to some other condition shoulder, usually degenerative nature, which by itself causes no symptoms.
Secondary chronic bursitis
Secondary chronic bursitis is much more common than the primary form. It is always the sequel of any condition of the cuff in some pathology of the acromion-clavicular joint or the presence of irregularities in the acromion and / or on the large tuber (after fracture, for example).
The subcoracoid bursitis manifested by painful limitation of abduction and internal rotation remains normal. External rotation is complete when performed passively retained in shoulder abduction than 90 degrees. In this condition, the pain is more intense during the passive horizontal adduction, carried on the body.
Trochanteric bursitis (BT) is the term used to describe chronic, intermittent pain, accompanied by discomfort on palpation of the lateral hip region because of inflammation of the bursa (ALVAREZ-NEMEGYEI & CANOSO, 2004)