What is acute and chronic kidney insufficiency?


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It is considering further, especially with creatine and are unsure if you have any kidney problems? Today we will take your questions about what is acute and chronic renal failure.

Chronic kidney disease is to kidney damage and progressive and irreversible loss of kidney function (glomerular tubular and endocrine). In its most advanced stage (called end-stage chronic renal failure – CRF), the kidneys can no longer maintain the normality of the patient’s internal medium (ACSM, 2011).

Are diagnosed when exhibit indicating renal damage by microalbuminuria or a glomerular filtration rate <60 mL / min / 1.73 m² for> 3 months. It can be acute or chronic (ACSM, 2011).

Acute renal failure: is the sudden loss of the ability of the kidneys to remove waste and concentrate urine without losing electrolytes, the kidneys may stop working quickly, but temporary. Quick because kidney function is lost in a few hours and temporary because the kidneys can return to work after a few weeks (Martins, 2004).

Chronic Renal Failure: is divided into six functional stages, according to the degree of renal function of the patient. These stages are (Martins, 2004):

• Phase normal renal function without renal injury-important from an epidemiological point of view because it includes members of people called risk groups for the development of chronic kidney disease (hypertension, hypertensive relatives, diabetics and patients with CKD, etc.), which still They did not develop kidney injury.

•Phase lesion with normal renal function – corresponds to the early stages of renal injury with preserved glomerular filtration, that is, the glomerular filtration rate is above 90 mL / min / 1.73 m².

•Mild renal insufficiency or functional phase – occurs in early loss of kidney function. At this stage, plasma urea and creatinine levels are still normal, there is no major signs or clinical symptoms of kidney failure and only accurate methods for assessing kidney function (purification methods, for example) will detect these abnormalities. The kidneys can maintain reasonable control of the internal environment. It comprises a glomerular filtration rate between 60 and 89 ml / min / 1.73 m².

•Phase laboratory or moderate renal impairment – at this stage, although the signs and symptoms of uremia may be present in a discreet manner, the patient remains clinically well. Most often, presenting signs and symptoms related only to the underlying cause (lupus, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, holiday urinary infections, etc.). Simple laboratory tests have shown us, often, high levels of urea and plasma creatinine. Corresponds to a glomerular filtration rate range between 30 and 59 ml / min / 1.73 m².

•Stage renal clinic or severe failure – The patient already suffers from kidney dysfunction. Shows marked signs and symptoms of uremia. Among them anemia, high blood pressure, swelling, weakness, malaise and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most common and early. Corresponding to the glomerular filtration rate range between 15 to 29 mL / min / 1.73 m².

•End-stage chronic renal failure – as its name implies, corresponds to the range of renal function in which the kidneys have lost control of the internal environment, making it this enough changed to be incompatible with life. At this stage, the patient is symptomatic intensely. Its therapeutic options are the methods of artificial blood clearance (peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis) or

renal transplantation. It comprises a glomerular filtration rate below 15 ml / min / 1.73 m².

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) slowly gets worse over time. In the early stages, it may be asymptomatic. The loss of function usually takes months to occur. It may be so slow that the symptoms do not appear until the kidney function is less than one tenth of normal. These being as follows (KIRSZTAJN, 2004):


When the kidneys work little or nothing, many substances, such as water, urea, potassium and sodium, accumulate in the blood. The largest amount of these substances cause problems in the body.

The symptoms of these problems are leg weakness, decreased growth, pale skin, weight loss, vomiting, loss of appetite, tiredness, swelling and decreased urination also occur frequently in other diseases.

When diet changes and medicines are not enough to improve the work of the kidneys, you have to start dialysis treatment or do a kidney transplant.

Identified any of the symptoms? See your doctor and find out if you suffer from kidney failure.