Control of blood pressure elderly through training with weights


Over the years and the aging process, several structural and functional adaptations occur in the cardiovascular system which leads to an increase in blood pressure at rest (LEWINGTON et al., 2002).

At this stage of life, there are differences in blood pressure levels at rest between genders, where women tend to be higher and lead to higher blood pressure index (HA). This is done usually after the fifth decade of life (CESARINO et al., 2008).

Because of these changes, measures directed to the prevention and control of hypertension has been taken, since it is a mortality risk factor to achieve high levels. Such concern is mainly in the neighboring individuals, since it is a population with a tendency to acquire the pathology (Brazilian Society of Cardiology, 2010).

Rather than having to intervene only when there is already high blood pressure, is prevention.

A very recommended strategy for older people is the regular practice of physical activity, because it is a practice with many functional and metabolic benefits in this population, exercising the HA control function and prevention (ACSM, 2009).

There is controversy in the literature regarding the chronic effect of weight training on resting blood pressure in elderly normotensos.Wood et al. (2001) found no significant differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), while other studies have found differences in SBP separately (SIMONS and ANDEL, 2006) and DBP (STEWART et al., 2005), and found that a further effect in both (SALLINEN et al., 2005).

The factors that differ from the results between studies are related to the choice of the population (men and women in the same analysis), training intensity, time analysis, among others.

Gurjão et al. (2013), taking these factors into account, tried to standardize a method of training and use only elderly women in their search for thus minimizing interference and to seek a realistic result. The authors reported a significant reduction in SBP at rest after the 8-week period that was proposed in the study, there were also slight reductions in mean arterial pressure and DBP according to the authors.

These findings lead us to the possibility of weight training be very interesting for the control of SBP at rest, which in turn, has been reported as responsible for the reduction of 40% of strokes and 15% of the risk of acute myocardial infarction.

Polito et al. (2009), points out that the possibility of weight training to be efficient on the control of blood pressure, the gain of muscle strength, which, for the author, may result in lower muscle activation and metabolic demand, causing less effort for a same effort.

The smallest effort can result in hemodynamic changes, leading to lower cardiovascular stress during a moderate effort in the elderly (LOVELL et al., 2009). Other positive effects with weight training is that acts as a shield against metabolic syndrome and obesity.

Weight training is an interesting measure for the control of blood pressure in normotensive elderly, therefore, can generate greater health for individuals in the elderly.

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