One of the most dreaded diseases the world’s population, the cancer is cause for frequent care and affects an increasingly large number of people in the world. Despite their growing numbers, many people were able to overcome this condition and were able to follow their activities naturally.
To get an idea of the size of the possibility of overcoming the disease, the American Cancer Society (2013), reports that 13.7 million Americans have succeeded in their treatment against cancer. Medical advances have allowed the increase in the index of surviving the disease, which affects about 1 million new people per year and gradually noticed the increased rate of survivors (HANNA et al, 2008;. Durstine et al., 2009) .
Exercise gradually comes appearing as part of prevention and even cancer treatment, which alters immune functions making them less subject practitioners
to the emergence of the disease, a factor that requires knowledge of the professionals related to sports (KING, MARKS and Mandell, 2003 , Rogers et al., 2008).
To begin the issue of treatment of cancer, know a little more of the origin of this disease and the treatments.
Etiology and Treatment of Cancer
Tumors, or tumors, cells are called growing out of control inside the human body. In general there are four types of cancer: carcinomas, leukemias, lymphomas and sarcomas.
Carcinomas are a class of cancers include prostate, breast, colon, lung and cervix, among others. Leukemias are cancers of the blood, while we believe that lymphomas are cancers of the immune system. Finally, sarcomas usually affect various connective tissues of the body (Durstine et al., 2009).
It is thought by authors who neoplasms are occurring oxidative accumulation in cells and can occur due to a result of exposure to toxins, viruses, and cell damage from burns, smoking, overweight, excessive stress, lack of physical activity, and poor Power (Durak and LILLY, 1996; Courneya et al., 2006).
Traditionally there are three types of treatment for cancer, as follows: surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. The treatments are dependent on the location and level of neoplasia, being determined by the medical oncologist. The cancer is treated by chemotherapy or radiation. Chemotherapy is often used in the treatment of leukemia and lymphomas, sarcomas are usually treated as by radiation (KOURNEYA, MACKEY and Jones, 2006).
The exercise has been used as a form of prevention, part of the treatment and management of side effects caused by hospital interventions, especially in carcinomas (Durstine, 2009).
Muscle fatigue is one of the most apparent side effects during treatment, especially chemotherapy, and physical exercise has been shown to neutralize interesting part of this nagging feeling (MOCK et al., 2001).
Another issue raised as a benefit of physical exercise, and control the side effects of treatments is the improvement of psychosocial factors, where affected by the disease feel better among others, and feel more excited (Durstine, 2009).
Considerations exercise prescription
Attention in the prescription of physical exercise programs are determining the positive results that these are able to achieve. A good education is able to enhance the very interesting levels of activity.
Regarding the prescription to minimize muscle fatigue, the authors suggest that the use of cardiorespiratory exercises with close to 60% of maximum heart rate is a safe activity for patients with cancer (Adamsen et al., 2004 WINZER et al., 2011) However, these amounts may vary, detailed monitoring of the case is necessary.
Depression is something that occurs frequently in patients with this pathology, and can derive the impossibility to perform certain tasks. Therefore, the use of exercises where the practitioner can run helps in this process, in addition to the release of endorphins and serotonin, softening this situation (Adamsen et al. 2003; Courneya, 2003).
The modulation of the training plan should take into account the stages of treatment and may fluctuate too the willingness of the patient (METZ, 2015).
The cardiorespiratory training follows the same process of preparation of weight training. Due to the effects of chemotherapy, an interesting protocol to be adopted would be intermittent. An example that Metz (2015) suggests is 5 minutes active and five minutes at rest to start the activities.
Choosing the soil is determining where flat surfaces are the most suitable because the most fragile conditions of the patients, thus making the safest activity, reducing the risk of accidents that prevents you from following exercising.
Balance training and flexibility
Traditional studies unfortunately do not address on balance and flexibility training, however, oncologists have highlighted the importance of these and suggest the use of Pilates and Yoga (Yoga) for this population.
In general, the introduction of routine exercise in the population is crucial for the prevention of cancer risk factors and to assist in the treatment thereof. Each
individual responds differently to treatment, where the responsible professional must be alert and advance training according to the comfort of the student.