The aging process brings physical and mental changes around the world. The professionals of the year are in a unique position to assist the population to minimize the deleterious effects caused by the passing years.
The physical exercise with monitoring tends to bring many benefits such as healthy eating, improvements in physical function, reduction of stress, being housed in a community, improved sleep, reduced consumption of tobacco and alcohol (ALTUG, 2014) .
Resistance training (weight training) is a key component for healthy living and for daily functions due to strength gain achieved with this practice. This capacity has great importance taking into account the Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass with advancing age) and that the loss of strength throughout life can exceed 40% with emphasis on reaching age 65 (PESCATELLO et al. 2014).
The disuse of muscles can be caused in healthy people by everyday issues such as work, personal problems or illness and people suffering from fractures or injuries. Such disuse causes muscle loss and strength with each passing day (MITCHELL et al., 2012). A bedridden person undergoes rapid muscle loss and decline in their functional abilities (ENGLISH and PADDON-JONES, 2010).
Another factor resulting from weight training that has been studied by researchers are the cognitive improvements that are essential for daily activities such as driving, using technological devices and the interaction with society (JOBE et al., 2001).
Vanes (2013) defines cognitive ability as thinking, language, calculation, perception, memory, reasoning, learning, imagination and intellect.
EFFECTS OF TRAINING WITH WEIGHTS LONG-TERM (24 WEEKS OF ABOVE)
Cassilhas et al. (2007) examined the training with weights long term (24 weeks) using the protocol of high intensity, average intensity and a group with only stretching activities. The authors’ findings were positive in the use of weight training at both intensities in relation to gains in muscle strength, mood, quality
of life and IGF-1 values. Authors report that the increase in IGF-1 values assist in improvement in cognitive performance (TREJO, CARRO e TORRES-ALEMAN, 2001; AL-DELAIMY et al., 2009).
Liu-Ambrose et al. (2010) compared cognitive developments comparing weekly frequency of one or two sessions and noted that participation in training programs with weights for more than once a week achieves better results.
EFFECTS OF TRAINING WITH WEIGHTS MEDIUM-TERM (MORE THAN 3 SESSIONS AND 24 WEEKS LESS)
In connection with this training period, Fragala et al. (2014) used a 6-week protocol with two weekly sessions and reported improvements in spatial perception and visual and physical reaction of the volunteers. Ozkaya et al. (2005) compared for 9 weeks aerobic training group and a weight training program and concluded that weight training may be more effective for the first information for improving cognition.
EFFECTS OF TRAINING WITH WEIGHTS SHORT-TERM (UP TO 3 SESSIONS)
Studies such as Chang and Etnier. (2009), Chang et al. (2012) and Chang et al. (2012) used three training sessions in the elderly and noted physiological changes that induces us to think that the stimulus of weight training can from the first sessions stimulate cognitive improvements are enhanced over the sessions.
MECHANISMS OF IMPROVEMENT LEARNING
Although not totally clear and proven mechanisms that cause cognitive improvement, some studies raise interesting hypotheses:
– Increased blood flow in the brain resulting in the transport of nutrients to the nervous system (CASSILHAS et al., 2007).
– Increased IGF-1 in serum, which is associated with the modulation of brain-derived molecules (CASSILHAS et al., 2007).
– You can boost the activity of antioxidant enzymes and thus improve recovery to oxidative damage (CASSILHAS et al., 2007).
– Physiological excitation caused by exercise (such as increased heart rate) may help improve cognitive (Chang and Etnier, 2009).
– Weight training can cause neurobiological changes in neurotransmitter functioning, cerebral blood flow and the increase in cell complexity in various brain regions.
Weight training is effective in showing the cognitive function in all age groups, especially in the elderly. More than one weekly session seems to achieve better results. If training for the elderly, it is recommended to run with overloads around 50% of 1RM and after adjustment can be increased according to the state of the practitioner.