What is proprioception?


Term widely used by Physical Therapists and Physical Educators, especially with regard to functional training, proprioception is an essential part of a training program and rehabilitation.

Hauer et al. (2003), highlight the word as the afferent central nervous system (CNS) by various types of sensory receptors that exist in the structures. According to the authors, the prioprioceptores has the power to direct the movement seeking to assist in the movement and prevent the joints, tendons and muscles.

The proprioception is defined by Fields (2004) as a sensorimotor response through proprioceptors has the function to protect the joints of external stimuli. Another definition found cites the term describes the perception of the body and includes a body awareness, movement and balance (LENT, 2001; KANDEL, Schwartz and Jessel, 2003).

The proprioceptors are located in muscles, joints, ligaments and skin. Such sensory organs can be divided into several groups: thermoreceptors, nociceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors (CAMPOS, 2004). Among the types of receptors, descata them mechanoreceptors, especially muscle and joint. Proprioception and the Core region go together. Proprioception aims to take advantage of the stabilization caused by the Core and allow better support joint, allowing better production force.

The use of exercises to proprioception, two receivers are highlighted, the Golgi tendon organ and muscle spindles (check the function of each one by clicking on their names).

The Golgi tendon organ acts in preventing joint, and has the function of inhibiting the agonist stimulation through activation of antagonist muscles, thus limiting the action and does not permit excessive action of the agonist muscles, causing agonist / antagonist balance and protecting muscles involved in movement (SARGENTIM, 2013). Together the OTG are the Muscle spindles, which has the primary function of letting the muscle constantly on alert, preventing unnecessary and harmful movements. The muscle spindle acts seeking greater control of the muscles on the move with imbalance or not.

For proprioception training in the athletes, recreational practitioners of physical or sedentary exercises are necessary exercises that stimulate OTG and muscle spindles.